Monday, April 6, 2015

Annotated list 2

To see the first half of the list of signers, click here

Signers of letter to Lt. Gen. Claude M. "Mick" Kicklighter
Vietnam 50th Anniversary Commemoration Program

Stan Nadel; Salzburg, Austria and New York; Professor (History), United States University program in Austria; I’m a United States citizen living abroad.
Susan Naeye; Hershey, Pennsylvania
Joseph Nagy; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Holly Near
Colin Neiburger; Asheville, North Carolina
              May Day Tribe, Kent State Students for a Democratic Society, Kent Committee to End the war in Viet Nam, Indochina Coalition (Columbus, Ohio), Indochina Peace Campaign. 1972 traveled to meet the Vietnamese Peace Delegations in Paris. Columbus Free Press, Prairie Fire.
Lin Nelson; Olympia, Washington; Faculty, Evergreen State College (Retired)
Lois E. Nelson; Oxford, Ohio
Eric Newhall; Los Angeles, California; Professor (American Studies, English)
Barbara Newman; Evanston, Illinois; Professor (University)
Chung Nguyen; Belmont, Massachusetts
Lam Nguyen; San Diego, California (District of Columbia); Viet Nam’s Soldier
Peter Phuong Nguyen; San Diego, California; Owner (Business)
              Vietnamese, born October 19, 1952. 1972-75 served in A.R.V.N. (Army of the Republic of [South] Viet Nam) as a junior officer in S.V.N. (South Viet Nam) police force. Born in the war, lived during the war and fought in the war until April 30, 1975. Understand the value of peace, for it is the most precious commodity one could have.
Thoa Nguyen
Tran Tuong Nhu; Berkeley, California
              1975-95 antiwar movement at Berkeley, continued working toward ending the embargo from 1975 until 1995.
Ting Ni; Winona, Minnesota; Professor
Jack Nicholl; Malibu, California; Owner, Nicholl Campaigns (Retired)
Steve Nichols; Palm Springs, California; Lawyer, Self Employed (Retired)
Geraldine Nicholson; Sacramento, California
Nick; Mount Pleasant, Michigan
              Son of a Korean and Viet Nam War veteran.
Vince Nobile; Oceanside, California; Professor (History), Chaffey College
              1968-69 Viet Nam Veteran, U.S. Air Force. Member, Viet Nam Veterans against the War.
Stephen S. Noetzel; San Francisco, California; President, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Commission, Construction Manager (Retired)
              I was a founding member of Viet Nam Veterans against the War, and Citizens Commission to Investigate American War Crimes in Southeast Asia. 1970-75 traveled and spoke widely in antiwar movement.
Mary Nolan; Brooklyn, New York; Professor (History)
Doug Nopar; Winona, Minnesota
Irwin H. Noparstak; Eugene, Oregon; Physician, Psychiatrist (Retired), Private Practice
              1968-69 I was the America Division Psychiatrist and saw many military men who were not in favor of the war. I saw people who did not feel military or Washington leaders were honorable. I saw lots of people who did not think what they did or were asked to do were correct, efficacious, and courageous, or even sane. It is imperative to have many veterans' views be told to avoid presenting a false front that what we did in Viet Nam was honorable and right and all veterans should be honored.
Don North; Fairfax, Virginia; Professor (Journalism, Visiting), American University of Nigeria, Yola, Nigeria
              Former ABC TV Viet Nam War Correspondent. 1965-70 ABC News radio and television correspondent, 1970-73 NBC television news Viet Nam correspondent. Journalism instructor for Can Tho TV on behalf Voice of America (V.O.A.).
Nancy Norwood; Mercersberg, Pennsylvania; Feldenkrais Practitioner
Carlie Numi; Kennett Square, Pennsylvania
              1960s volunteer in Viet Nam with International Voluntary Services and when I returned to the U.S. I was active in the antiwar movement.
Karen Nussbaum; Washington, District of Columbia
David J. O'Brien; Holden, Massachusetts
              Active with a variety of peace groups then and since, especially PAX Christi and others in the religious community
James O'Brien; Somerville, Massachusetts
Joanne O'Brien; Holden, Massachusetts
John O'Brien; Los Angeles, California; Gay Antiwar Activist, Curator, Historian
              1965-75 active in numerous antiwar groups. Student Mobilization Committee National Staff, National Peace Action Coalition Board Member, Organized LGBT national protests against U.S. War on Southeast Asia, Proudly arrested five times for opposing that war. Have large public exhibit war memorabilia.
Enrique C. Ochoa; La Habra Heights, California; Professor (History), California State University Los Angeles (C.S.U.L.A.)
Francesca Ochoa; Hacienda Heights, California; Teacher, Middle School (Retired)
Rick O'Dell; Roanoke, Virginia; Director, Department of Veterans Affairs, Commonwealth of Virginia (Retired)
              1969 Viet Nam combat veteran, served as a tank gunner with the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment. Publisher of the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (P.T.S.D.) Help Network ( Coauthor of two books on veterans’ benefits; founding board member of Viet Nam Veterans of America (V.V.A.). 1984 returned to Viet Nam.
Charles W. O'Dowd; Hatfield, Massachusetts; Postmaster
              I was a Conscientious Objector assigned as a clothing fitter to the First Cavalry. In Viet Nam, I was reassigned as a Specialist 5 Tank Commander. After I was blown up by a young woman suicide bomber, I returned to the states, where I was assigned Emergency Logman duties because I had been trained as a company clerk and given a background check. I got a Top Secret Crypto Clearance. After the Army, I went to Massachusetts PAX and worked to educate civilians as part of my Quaker beliefs.
Arnold Offner; Newton, Massachusetts; C.F. Hugel Professor (History, Emeritus), Lafayette College
Diana Oleskevich; Saint Louis, Missouri
Joseph S. Onello; Saint Ignatius, Montana; Ph.D.
David Oppenheimer; Piedmont, California; Professor
Linda Orell; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Psychotherapist (Semiretired)
Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz; San Francisco, California; Writer, Professor (Emerita)
              1964-68 while a University of California Los Angeles graduate student I organized against the war and United States imperialism in general. 1968-75 full-time organizer.
Gloria Osborne; Springwater, New York; (Retired)
Stefan Ostrach; Eugene, Oregon; Representative, Teamsters Union
Gary Ostrower; Alfred, New York; Professor (History), Alfred U.T.
Le Anh Tu Packard; Media, Pennsylvania
              As a member of the National Action/Research into the Military Industrial Complex (N.A.R.M.I.C.), a project of the American Friends Service Committee (A.F.S.C.), I carried out research on U.S. aid to the Nguyen Van Thieu regime and how U.S. funds were used to finance human rights violations, kill and maim Vietnamese civilians and drive millions from their homes through bombing and other means.
Chuck Palazzo; Center Moriches, New York
Luce Palazzolo; West Covina, California; Secretary IV (Senior Management)
Robert Redwoodhippie Palmer; Rosemount, Minnesota; Accounting (Associate), Northwest Airlines
Thea Paneth; Arlington, Massachusetts
Robert Pardun; Santa Cruz, California
Stephen Parry; Cleveland, Pennsylvania
              1971-72 young ranger airborne infantry officer with the 101st Airborne Division assigned in country between.
Lewis Patrie; Asheville, North Carolina; Treasurer, Western North California Physicians for Social Responsibility
              I was disturbed by the grossly disrespectful treatment experienced by many returning veterans, but more appalled by the deceit that misled us into and sustained that debacle. Even Westmoreland eventually admitted the catastrophic error our nation made in waging a conflict that could not be won.
Mark Paul; Shawnee, Kansas
Thomas Pauly; Maplewood, New Jersey
Leah Payne; South Kingstown, Rhode Island
Roger Peace; Tallahassee, Florida; Professor (History, Adjunct), Tallahassee Community College
              Interested in the April 23-24 Conference, not sure who exactly you want to sign the petition – historians, academics, the general public?
Rosemarie Pease; Ashland, Oregon
Bruce Pech; Boulder, Colorado
Alexandra Pecore; Middletown, Maryland
Scott Peden; Ben Lomond, California
              1967 until the Viet Nam War ended I worked in the antiwar movement.
Peter N. Pedroni; Oxford, Ohio
Harry Peerce; Bronx, New York
Jane W. Peerson; Naperville, Illinois
Albert J. Penta; Monroe, Washington; Retired
Anne Peretz; Cambridge, Massachusetts; Founder, the Parenting Journey
              In 1961 I was on the first two picket lines at the White House. 1963-65 I lived as a dependent at Clark Air Force Base in the Philippines, wrote an article for the Manila Times against the war, was subsequently sent home early and harassed by the U.S. Air Force. In 1967, I started Lawyers Military Defense Committee with Charles Nesson and William Homans. We operated a legal office for military personnel in Viet Nam. I was a board member of the Committee to Save War Burned and War Injured Children, bringing badly wounded kids to various medical centers in the United States, involving community care and awareness. I funded various antiwar efforts, including the National Conference for New Politics, Students for a Democratic Society, and Massachusetts PAX.
Ron Perez; Berkeley, California; Coordinator (Intake), Veterans Services, San Francisco County Jail; Prisoner Services Coordinator, San Francisco Sheriff’s Department
              1968 Member and supporter Viet Nam Veterans against the War. 1975 Viet Nam Veteran working on behalf of incarcerated veterans.
Bill Periman; Ashfield, Massachusetts
Rick Perlstein; Chicago, Illinois
Deryle L. Perryman; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Filmmaker (Documentary)
              Viet Nam Veteran. Produced film on American Veterans living in Viet Nam doing humanitarian work. Since the late 70s brought presentations to high school and college students. Member of Veterans for Peace Chapter 160, the single overseas chapter of Veterans for Peace (V.F.P.).
Dan Petegorsky; Portland, Oregon
Carl Peterson; Manistee, Michigan
Michael E. Peterson; Eugene, Oregon
              I was a squad leader for the United States Marines Combined Action Program. One of the consequences from the war I fought was, on at least two occasions, I participated in "the soap treatment," an early form of waterboarding. I have had to live with that fact for decades.
Lynda Jackson Petito; Crested Butte, Colorado
Fred Pfeiffer; Albany, New York; Citizen
Jonathan D. Phillips; Cincinnati, Ohio; Veteran
William Phillips; Brooklyn, New York
Robert Pike; Tualatin, Oregon; Technician (Electronics)
              Member of "The Resistance," an antiwar group. Although I was born with a congenital birth defect that would have disqualified me from military service I refused, as a matter of ethics, to complete a physical examination and to report for induction. Consequently, I served six months in a Federal Prison Camp. It is still my firm conviction that conscription has no place in a democratic society. War only leads to more war. We must seek peaceful alternatives to survive in a nuclear age. Peace!
Charles Pinderhughes; Newark, New Jersey; Associate Professor (Sociology), Essex County College
Ellen Pinzur; Silver Spring, Maryland; Manager (Office), Council for Resource Development
              Antiwar activist in Boston. Worked with returning soldiers then and now via Viet Nam Veterans against the War and V.V.A.
Mark Pittenger; Boulder, Colorado; Professor
              Active in the antiwar movement during and immediately after college.
Letty Cottin Pogrebin; New York, New York; Writer, Lecturer
              Antiwar loudmouth. Lost a few friends over my fervent opposition to the war. Attended several antiwar demonstrations, culminating in the May 1975 War Is Over rally in Central Park.
Cynthia Cannon Poindexter; Peekskill, New York
M.L. Polak; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Columnist (Magazines, Newspapers, Internet)
Harry Pontiff; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Ph.D., Security Officer (Information), Macalester College
Robert Pool; Seal Beach, California
James Gray Pope; Montclair, New Jersey; Professor (Law)
              1969 until end of the war worked with numerous antiwar organizations including the Indochina Peace Campaign and the Peoples Coalition for Peace and Justice. 1972 worked full-time for the McGovern for President Campaign.
Mary Reynolds Powell; Cleveland, Ohio
              1970-71 United States Army Nurse Corps (Captain), 24th Evacuation Hospital, Long Binh, Viet Nam.
Charles Powell; Albuquerque, New Mexico; President, Albuquerque Chapter of Veterans for Peace
Margaret Power; Chicago, Illinois
Melinda Power; Chicago, Illinois
John Prados; Silver Spring, Maryland; Author
Patrick D. Prein; Montgomery, Texas; Householder, Magus/Failed
Jim Price; Montclair, New Jersey
Mary Prophet; Berkeley, California
Terry Provance; Washington, District of Columbia
Michael Prucker; Washington, District of Columbia
Ted Prush; Portland, Oregon
              1964-68 served in the U.S. Marine Corps, 1966-68 in Viet Nam (Chu Lai). Joined Viet Nam Veterans against the War following my discharge from the military.
June Ellen Pulcini; Hermosa Beach, California; Member, U.X.O. (Board)
              Former Vice Chair, International Voluntary Services; Member, East Meets West Foundation Board, Cheer for Viet Nam, Global Village Foundation, Asia Resource Center. 1963 volunteer in Cambodia for International Voluntary Services (I.V.S.), 1964-65 Viet Nam, 1965-70 Laos. I.V.S. and Asia Resource Center (C.O.R.K.R.) board member over twenty years.
Louis H. Pumphrey; Shaker Heights, Ohio; Assistant (Publishers)
              1966 drafted, 1967-68 reporter, then editor of First Infantry Division newspaper in Viet Nam. Now a member of Chapter 39 of Veterans for Peace, based at a church in Cleveland Heights, Ohio. For the past several years, I have been a member of Veterans for Peace and, as often as possible, wear my dress greens Class A uniform and carry my peace flag.
Maurine Pyle; Carbondale, Illinois
Tom Pynn; Kennesaw, Georgia; Lecturer (Interdisciplinary Studies and Philosophy, Senior)
Mary Quijano; San Antonio, Texas; Teacher
Sophie Quinn-Judge; Media, Pennsylvania; Professor (History, Associate), Temple University
              Work with A.F.S.C. in Saigon, peace marcher. I am completing a manuscript on the South Vietnamese peace movement and efforts to find a political solution to the war, which I hope will be published in 2015.
John W. Quist; Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania; Professor (History), Shippensburg University
Joni Rabinowitz; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Christine Rack; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Instructor
Jack Radey; Eugene, Oregon; Producer (Associate), Seated
Bill Ramsey; Marshall, North Carolina; Coordinator (Program), American Friends Service Committee (Retired)
              October 21, 1967 I attended the March on the Pentagon and began eight years of public opposition and organizing to the end the war, including draft and war tax resistance and numerous other acts of nonviolent civil disobedience. The collaboration of civilian and G.I. opposition to the war was crucial to finally ending the war, which I celebrated with tens of thousands in Sheep’s Meadow, Central Park, New York City.
Anita Rapone; Burlington, Vermont
Elayne Rapping; Atlanta, Georgia
Marcus Raskin
Merle Ratner; New York, New York; Co-coordinator, Viet Nam Agent Orange Relief and Responsibility Campaign
              Since 1968 antiwar and solidarity activist, currently active in Viet Nam Agent Orange Relief and Responsibility Campaign, a project of Veterans for Peace.
Linda Ray; San Francisco, California
Susan Ray; Lake Dallas, Texas
Michael Reagan; Seattle, Washington
Bob Redig; Winona, Minnesota
Kathy Redig; Winona, Minnesota
Ted Reed; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Collin Rees; Washington, District of Columbia
Mark Reeve; Decatur, Georgia; Member (Staff), Clergy and Laity Concerned (former)
              In the late 60s while a graduate student at the University of Texas, Austin, I attended vigils at the Lyndon Baines Johnson (L.B.J.) ranch and other demonstrations.
Danis Regal; Montpelier, Vermont; Filmmaker
Tony Regusis; Astoria, New York
Thomas Ehrlich Reifer; San Diego, California; Ph.D., Fellow (Associate), Transnational Institute
Dick Reilly; Chicago, Illinois
Joan Reilly; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Ward Reilly; Baton Rouge, Louisiana; Member, Iraq Veterans against the War Advisory Board
              1971-74 heavily involved with the Active Duty G.I. Resistance to the Viet Nam War, and the Nixon Administration, in the First Infantry Division.
Rick Reinhard; Washington, District of Columbia
Larry Remer; La Jolla, California; Consultant (Political)
              I lost several close friends, including one whom I sat next to in my high school home room, to this stupid and tragic war. I spent over ten years of my life as a political activist dedicated to helping stop the war.
              The U.S. was simply on the absolute wrong side of history. We should have supported Ho Chi Minh and General Giap. After all, we armed and trained them to fight the Japanese. Instead, we callously wasted the lives of more than fifty thousand Americans, countless Indochinese, and tore apart the fabric of both U.S. and Vietnamese society. It's more than a little ironic the U.S. and Vietnamese naval units today conduct joint maneuvers in the South China Sea as a tripwire against Chinese expansion.
              My adult life has been spent in politics, in large part working for a more democratic society to help prevent other Viet Nams, with mixed success.
David Rensberger; Decatur, Georgia; Professor (New Testament)
              As a Mennonite I was eligible for alternative non-military service. I became concerned this was simply an entanglement with the war effort. I did not report, and returned my draft card. I received a three-year sentence, of which I served sixteen months before being paroled.
Lawrence Reverby; Trumansburg, New York; Attorney
              Several years of protest activities, including organizing efforts and draft resistance.
Susan M. Reverby; Cambridge, Massachusetts; Professor (History of Ideas), Wellesley College
Ruth Reynolds; Durham, North Carolina
Brewster Rhoads; Cincinnati, Ohio
Cheryl D. Rhoden; Pinon Hills, California; Council Member, Santa Monica (former); Aide, U.S. Senator Alan Cranston
              I participated in the mobilizations to end the war in Washington, D.C. and the Indochina Peace Campaign.
Lucille Riccitelli; Lincoln, Rhode Island
Thomas Richards; San Diego, California
Rosalie G. Riegle; Evanston, Illinois; Ph.D., Peace Movement Oral Historian, Professor (English, Former), Saginaw Valley State University
              As an oral historian of the faith-based peace movement, I am deeply conversant with nonviolent resistance to the Viet Nam War. I want to be sure the whole truth is told by independent academically qualified historians, not by a Pentagon intent on remaking the Viet Nam debacle into a vehicle for waging present and future wars.
Thomas Riggins; New York, New York; Teacher
Beth Rimanoczy; Whiteland, Indiana
              Member of Students for a Democratic Society (S.D.S.). Married to Carl Oglesby, antiwar writer about the New Left Movement and president of S.D.S. in 1965-66.
Glen A. Risdon; San Francisco, California
WIlliam Roberson; Brooklyn, New York
Anderson Robert; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Professor
              1967-68 EOD Air Force, Viet Nam
John Roberts; Cambridge, Massachusetts
Ken Roberts; Dobbs Ferry, New York
John Robertson; Central Saanich, British Columbia, Canada
              The Viet Nam Fiftieth Anniversary should be remembered with sadness and shame, and the resolve for "never again."
              Regrettably, I initially supported the war and criticized my own country for not being involved. I became strongly critical as the futility, wrongness, inhumanity and level of brutality became clear. This travesty opened my eyes to the deception practiced not just by our "enemies," but by our "friends." I remain a skeptic and continue to oppose my own country's involvement in unwarranted and destructive foreign "adventures" such as Kosovo, Afghanistan, Libya and now Iraq.
John Mark Robertson; Belleville, Canada
Neil C. Robertson; Skowhegan, Maine; Organizer (Field), Political Party; Physician’s Assistant, Internal and Family Medicine
              Co-founder of New England Resistance, draft resister, member of Students for a Democratic Society (S.D.S.)
Betty Robinson; Baltimore, Maryland; Organizer (Community)
Carl Douglas Rogers; Los Angeles, California; Specialist, Public Affairs; Communications Consultant (former)
              Contributor to the original edition of "Letters from Viet Nam," co-founder of Viet Nam Veterans against the War (V.V.A.W.), organized and led Viet Nam Veterans for McCarthy, the Serviceman's LINK to Peace, REDRESS, and other antiwar efforts. Served on the Steering Committee of the New Mobilization Committee to End the War and staff of Clergy and Laity Concerned about Viet Nam (C.A.L.C.), coordinating the “Help UNSELL the War!” advertising campaign; served as co-press secretary for the initial Pentagon Papers trial of Dan Ellsberg and Tony Russo, organizer of “The War is Over!” celebration in Central Park.
Jamala Rogers; St. Louis, Missouri
David Rogg; Oakton, Virginia
Nora Roman; San Francisco, California
Denise Romesburg; Phoenix, Arizona
Dirck Roosevelt; Cambridge, Massachusetts; Professor (Education, Associate), Teachers College, Columbia University
              Demonstrations in New York City and Washington D.C.
Huck Rorick; Pinole, California
Eve Rosahn; New York, New York; Attorney (Criminal Defense)
Irma Garcia Rose; Brooklyn, New York; Social Worker, Licensed Clinical
Peter W. Rose; Cincinnati, Ohio; Professor (Emeritus)
              Protesting the war radically transformed my thinking and my life.
Bruce Rosen; New York, New York
Kathleen T. Rosen; Cleveland Heights, Ohio; Therapist
Jane Cahoon Rosenberg; Shaker Heights, Ohio
Ken Rosenberg; Portland, Oregon
Murray Rosenblith; Brooklyn, New York
Lillian Rosengarten; Cold Spring, New York
Robert J.S. Ross; Southborough, Massachusetts; Professor (Research)
              Movement activist.
Gary Rothberger; Cambridge, Massachusetts
Richard Rothstein; Wellfleet, Massachusetts
Vivian Rothstein; Santa Monica, California; Director, Special Projects, Los Angeles Alliance for a New Economy (L.A.A.N.E.)
              1967 I traveled to North Viet Nam as part of an American peace delegation to see firsthand the impact of U.S. bombing on the people of Viet Nam. I helped organize the Jeannette Rankin Brigade, the first national march of American women against the Viet Nam War in Washington, D.C. June 15, 1968 and participated in many mobilizations and speaking engagements to organize widespread opposition to the war. 1994 I returned to Viet Nam on a women's delegation to work for normalization of relations between our two countries.
Dawn L. Rubbert; Saint Louis, Missouri
Paul Rubeo; Ulster Park, New York; Educator, Social Studies
Geoff Rubio; Walnut Creek, California; Professional (Information Systems, Retired)
              1969-70 I was an Army draftee and served in Long Binh, Viet Nam.
Jacki Fox Ruby; Berkeley, California; President, Berkeley Federation of Teachers, A.F.T. 1078, A.F.L.-C.I.O. (former)
Jo-Ellen Rudolf; Valley Center, California
              1966-69 provided draft counseling for the Friends during the same period.
Richard Rudolf; Valley Center, California
              1966-69 served as Lieutenant Navy Judge Advocate General (J.A.G.).
Susan Rutberg; San Francisco, California; Professor (Law)
Danilyn Rutherford; Santa Cruz, California; Professor (Anthropology)
Richard Rutschman; Chicago, Cook County, Illinois
Paul Ryder; Mariposa, California
              1972-73 Research Assistant to attorney Leonard Weinglass, Pentagon Papers Legal Defense, Los Angeles, California; 1973-75 Staff, National Resource Center, Indochina Peace Campaign, Santa Monica, California. 1973 visited Ha Noi and Haiphong. 1971 arrested at the Justice Department, Washington, D.C. 1972 arrested at Sikorsky Aircraft, Stratford, Connecticut, and Institute for Defense Analysis, Princeton, New Jersey. 1975 arrested at the United States Embassy in Saigon.
Sally; Berkeley, California
Ed Sacco; Swannaonoa, North Carolina; Teacher, Storyteller, Public School
Steve Sacks; Silver Spring, Maryland
              Anti-Viet Nam war activist.
Toby Sackton; Lexington, Massachusetts; Publisher, Seafood News
              1968-75 organizer of the Boston antiwar movement, helping plan many demonstrations, actions, public meetings, and meetings with Congressional leaders, including an eight hundred person antiwar "hearing" attended by then Congressman Tip O'Neill. 1970 draft resister, thrown off the Boston Army Base after being disruptive during the physical. I was not subsequently recalled, even though I was 1-A, and then the lottery system was put in place.
              I had the opportunity to travel to Viet Nam this year and visited the War Remnants Museum in Ho Chi Minh City. Any commemoration of the Viet Nam War must acknowledge the widespread antiwar efforts of the American people whose lack of support for this war ultimately helped end it. However, I am awed by the sacrifices made by the Vietnamese, with over three million dead in their anti-colonial and anti-United States war.
              Our own efforts of demonstrations, vigils, and disruption are tiny by comparison. Any commemoration of the war must recognize the immense sacrifices made by the Vietnamese, and the staggering recovery efforts they have needed. Even today sons and daughters of Agent Orange victims, who have malformations and genetic disorders, have written President Obama urging him to live up to the responsibility the United States still bears to assist these innocent victims. All of this should be part of the commemoration.
              Finally, my best childhood friend was killed in Viet Nam. He should never have had to go.
Marianne Salcedo; Thomasville, Georgia; Director (Development)
              Being sixty years old, many of my friends and family members were drafted, and fought in Viet Nam. I personally protested this disgrace along with them in the streets of Eugene, Oregon. This war of choice should be depicted truthfully, not as a revision of history. I mean, those of U.S. who lived through it are still alive. Some respect, particularly for the veterans, should be given.
Josh Sale; Mill Valley, California
June Sale; Los Angeles, California; Social Worker, M.S.W. (Retired)
Michael K. Salemi; Chapel Hill, North Carolina
              I served two years of Alternative Service as a Conscientious Objector during the Viet Nam War working at the University of Chicago Hospitals and Clinics.
Scott Salsman; Delaware, Ohio
Ron Salzberger; Saint Paul, Minnesota; Professor (Philosophy, Emeritus), Metropolitan State University
Beth Sanders; Seattle, Washington
Laurie Sandow; Poughkeepsie, New York
Mark Santow; Providence, Rhode Island; Professor (Associate) and Chair (History), University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth
              I am a professor of American History; taught classes and published on the Viet Nam War for many years. We need a robust and morally responsible public discussion about the war and its lessons. Full honesty and accuracy about the facts and moral issues raised by the war is critical; thousands of Americans (and many more non-Americans) have died in the past half-century, because too many of us – in power and out – have refused to face the truth.
Judith Saraceno; Cranston, Rhode Island; Social Worker (Retired)
              Activist, wife, and mother against the war.
Nancy Miller Saunders; Durham, Arkansas
              1970-73 worked with Viet Nam Veterans against the War and saw close up the toll that vicious war took on those sent to fight it. Yes, they were valiant and patriotic young men who risked everything in defense of our country, but in Viet Nam, they were ordered and emotionally driven to commit horrible atrocities. To honestly commemorate the Viet Nam War, we need to include those, in hopes that never again do we send our nation's finest into such unnecessary nightmares.
John W. Sayer; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Faculty (History, Part-time)
Janice M. Scales; Gainesville, Florida; Assistant (Administrative)
Patrick Scanlan; Bainbridge Island, Washington
Carolyn Scarr; Berkeley, California; Coordinator (Program), Ecumenical Peace Institute
              Supported my congressperson, Don Edwards, in his vote against the Gulf of Tonkin resolution. Marched, of course. Active with Ecumenical Peace Institute (E.P.I.) during the last several years of the Viet Nam War and continue with E.P.I. in its anti-imperialism work and other issues.
John Schaefer; Arcata, California
Jay Schaffner; New York, New York; Moderator, Newslist
              At eighteen I was the youngest person to visit the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam in June 1970 as part of a delegation from the Young Workers Liberation League.
David L. Schalk; Manhattan, New York; Kenan Professor (History, Emeritus), Vassar College
              I am seventy-eight and not sure I have the physical strength to be involved. See link below for my antiwar engagement. March 2003 visited Viet Nam and lectured in Ha Noi at the Institute of International Relations on The Antiwar Movement - Reflections of a Participant.
Marilyn Schertz; Atlanta, Georgia
Bill Scheurer; Lindenhurst, Illinois; Director (Executive), On Earth Peace
Gordy Schiff; Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts; Physician
Bruce Schmiechen; Oakland, California
Steven Schneider; Watertown, Massachusetts; Attorney
Nancy Schniedewind; New Paltz, New York; Professor, State University of New York (S.U.N.Y.) – New Paltz
Jeff Schoellkopf; Warren, Vermont
Wendy Schoener; Massachusetts; Lecturer
Ellen Schrecker; New York City, New York; Professor (History), Yeshiva University
              I would also like to sign in the name of my husband, Marvin Gettleman (who is cognitively impaired) who contributed to the antiwar movement by compiling an early and important collection of documents about the United States and Viet Nam.
Joseph Schulze; Montague, Michigan. Superintendent (School)
Susan Schuurman; Albuquerque, New Mexico
              Coordinator, Albuquerque Center for Peace and Justice; Cofounder, Coalition to Stop $30 Billion to Israel
Elaine G. Schwartz; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Ph.D., Professor
              I was involved in antiwar activities as a member of Women Strike for Peace, as well as the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.
Joel Schwartz; Staten Island, New York; President, C.S.E.A. Local 446
Joseph M. Schwartz; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Professor (Political Science), Temple University
Daniel Schwartz; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Professor (Environmental Sociology)
              Since 1964 student and faculty activist in California. Active in Teach-In movement and antiwar faculty organizations. Viet Nam was a moral watershed and its whitewashing is another step towards totalitarianism.
Valerie Stoll Schwimmer; Berkeley, California
Gerald Allan Schwinn; Washington, District of Columbia; Librarian, Museum Guard
              Active with the Committee of Returned Volunteers (C.R.V.), traveled to Laos and "North" Viet Nam in 1970 or 1971, frequent attendee and sometime organizer of antiwar demonstrations.
Donald M. Scott; New York City, New York; Professor (History, Emeritus), City University of New York, Queens College
              Active in Teach-ins and other forms of protest University of Wisconsin.
Donald P. Scott; Vermont, New Jersey; Minister (Presbyterian)
Joan W. Scott; Princeton, New Jersey; Professor (Emerita), Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton
              Active at the University of Wisconsin, Madison in teach-ins and other actions against the war.
Peter Dale Scott; Berkeley, California; Professor (English, Emeritus), University of California at Berkeley (U.C.B.)
              Speaker and author against the war.
Cynthia Scully; Branford, Connecticut
Thomas Seaman; Moscow
Chuck Searcy; Ha Noi, Viet Nam (Georgia); Adviser (International), Project R.E.N.E.W.; Vice President, Vets for Peace (Chapter 160)
              1967-68 U.S. Army veteran, military intelligence in Saigon. Since 1995 living and working in Viet Nam representing American veterans' organizations dealing with war legacies, including Unexploded Ordnance (U.X.O.) and Agent Orange.
Jeffrey Segal; Louisville, Kentucky
              I was sentenced to four years in prison for draft refusal and did twenty-seven months. I am one of the Oakland Seven.
Louis Segal; Oakland, California; Lecturer, History (U.S.F., N.P.S., U.C.B.)
Edwin Selby; Branchville, New Jersey; Consultant (Creativity)
              Viet Nam Veteran (United States Navy). Flew as crew in a C-54 cargo aircraft. Former member and State Coordinator of Viet Nam Veterans against the War (V.V.A.W.)
Mark Selden; Ithaca, New York; Senior Research Associate
Jessica Semon; Albany, New York
Gunja Sengupta; New York, New Jersey; Professor (History)
Arlene Seymour; Stormville, New York
Robert Shaffer; Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania; Professor (History)
Grace Shahrokh; Asheville, North Carolina
Mark R. Shanahan; Columbus, Ohio
Duane Shank; Washington, District of Columbia
              In 1971 convicted draft non-registrant, leader in postwar amnesty movement, organizer and activist in a number of justice and peace organizations since then.
Mansoor Shah; Charleston, South Carolina
Jeanne Shaw; Croton-on-Hudson, New York
Joss Sheldon; London, United Kingdom; Writer
William Shelton; Stroud, OK, Oklahoma; Teacher (Public School, Retired)
              Lifetime member, Viet Nam Veterans against the War. U.S. Air Force Academy Cadet, dismissed for opposition to Viet Nam War and organizing efforts with Viet Nam Veterans against the War; arrested and jailed twice for acts of civil disobedience; proud G.I. resister.
Laurie Sheridan; Boston, Massachusetts; Coordinator, College and Career Readiness
Paul Sheridan; Northport, Maine; Faculty, City University of New York (C.U.N.Y.) – Brooklyn College (Retired)
Michael Sherry; Evanston, Illinois; Professor (History), Northwestern University
Robert Shetterly; Brooksville, Maine; President, Americans Who Tell the Truth
              1968 antiwar protester, turned in my draft card, refused induction. I continue to work on antiwar and peace issues as an artist and writer.
Nancy Shier; Chicago, Illinois
Lynn Shoemaker; Whitewater, Wisconsin; Professor (Languages and Literatures, Associate)
Richard Shortt; Somerville, Massachusetts; Advocate, Consumer Finance (Retired)
              1965 in Ann Arbor, Michigan participated in first draft board sit-in. Sued U.S. in Federal Second Circuit Court and successfully halted drafting of antiwar protesters. (Shortt and Wolff v. U.S.) Joined many protests including New York City million with over one million protesters.
              I received twenty-one stitches in my head and exile from my country in return for fighting against the war in Viet Nam as a college student.
Lori Jo Siegel; Croton-on-Hudson, New York; Reverend
Rachel Siegel; Burlington, Vermont; Executive Director
Bobbi Siegelbaum; Bronx, New York; Educator, Health (Retired)
Lewis Siegelbaum; East Lansing, Michigan; Professor (History)
Steve Siegelbaum; New York City, New York; Founder and Principal, The Computer School
              To my mind, the greatest crime a society can commit is the falsification or whitewashing of history, which has paved the way for the most despicable acts ever committed by nations. There are currently movements afoot in our country to teach "patriotism" in schools rather than history. This goes hand in hand with the rampant militarization of American society and culture. We cannot allow this to pass.
Sonia Silbert; Washington, District of Columbia; Director, Washington Peace Center
              The Washington Peace Center served as a draft counseling center in D.C. during the Viet Nam War.
Ramona Silipo; England (California); Expatriot
              Brother was a Navy Seal with the Underwater Demolition Team, wounded twice and sole survivor of his five-man team. His wounds included severe internal injuries that disabled him for life. He died young, at the age of fifty-four, of complications from treating those injuries. I was antiwar, but not anti-men who chose to fight. I petitioned and wrote letters to Congressional representatives, but did not march because, in Berkeley, with Reagan as governor, it was too dangerous. I knew friends who were shot at by police, arrested and denied insulin while being detained, clubbed and slapped by police. I had National Guardsmen with fixed bayonets literally in front of my apartment building. The war at home was different from the war in Viet Nam, but it was going on at the same time.
William Sinderbrand; New York, New York; Analyst (Staff)
Alan Singer; Brooklyn, New York; Professor (Education), Hofstra University
Phillip Singerman; Bethesda, Maryland
Mary R. Sive; Montclair, New Jersey
Roy Skellenger; Kent, Ohio
Andor Skotnes; Delmar, New York; Professor (History)
David Slavin; Decatur, Georgia; Ph.D., Professor (Adjunct)
Melvin Small; Royal Oak, Michigan; Distinguished Professor (History, Emeritus), authored books and articles on Viet Nam War dissent.
Amy Smiley; New York, New York; Social Worker (Clinical)
Benita Smith; Berkeley, California; Social Worker (Psychiatric, Former)
Billy Smith; Bozeman, Montana; Professor (History)
Carol Smith; New York, New York
Liza Smith; Alexandria, Virginia; Liaison (Legislative)
Sam Smith; West Chicago, Illinois; Reverend
              Antiwar protestor during the Viet Nam War, then joined the Fellowship of Reconciliation and elected to National Leadership within the Fellowship of Reconciliation.
              [Sam Smith died on December 11, 2014.]
Wayne Smith; Cambridge, Massachusetts; Advocate for Justice (Disabled)
              Served sixteen months in Viet Nam as a combat medic. Befriended Vietnamese civilians and saw the hypocrisy of the War! Home from war, I worked to help normalize relations between the people of the United States and the Vietnamese people. Returned to Viet Nam and rode bicycles, for peace and reconciliation with former enemy soldiers! Met President Sang in New York, thus completed the circle.
Sue Marx Smock; Washington, District of Columbia
John Sniegocki; Cincinnati, Ohio; Professor (Christian Ethics)
John Sniezyk; Averill Park, New York; Engineer (Retired)
              I learned a lot of this war’s history, and it was wrong. I also have a number of friends who were involved, have died, or they and their families are still suffering Agent Orange health effects.
Peter Snoad; Boston, Massachusetts
              I'm a playwright, and my multi-media play, "The Draft" weaves together real-life stories of ten young people from the U.S. eight men and two women, who made different choices in response to the draft. It will premiere February 6-22 at Hibernian Hall in Roxbury, Massachusetts. If you are interested in seeing the play staged at a college or high school near you, please e-mail me at: I believe my play could be a useful tool to help counteract the government's latest revisionist propaganda effort. The stories in "The Draft" are adapted primarily from Tom Weiner's book, "Called To Serve: Stories of Men and Women Confronted by the Viet Nam War Draft". Check out Tom's blog:
David Sogg; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Elaine Sokoloff; California
Jeffrey Sokolow; Atlanta, Georgia; Writer (Technical), Editor
Mark Solomon; Newton, Massachusetts
Robert Spann; Huntsville, Texas; Activist; Gadfly; Stop the propaganda and tell this story the way it really happened. Keep the faith.
Robyn Spencer; Bronx, New York; Professor (History, Assistant)
Marie Spike; Delray Beach, Florida; Psychotherapist, Antiwar Activist
Jack Bradigan Spula; Rochester, New York; Journalist (Retired), Peace Activist, Musician
              1969-75 United States Marine Corps Reserve enlisted man. I faced being drafted to fight in a war I opposed. I enlisted in the Marine Corps Reserve (1975 honorably discharged with rank of corporal). This experience deepened my antiwar feelings step by step. Ultimately, I became an antiwar and anti-militarism counselor and organizer, and a committed pacifist. I work in the peace movement to this day.
Todd M. Stafford; Boulder, Colorado; Professor
Moe Stavnezer; San Gabriel, California
Kathleen B. Stayton; Northumberland, Pennsylvania; Teacher, Great Valley School District, Malvern, Pennsylvania
David Steele; Signal Hill, California; Manufacturing, Printing, Labels
              Opposed the war as a junior high and then high school student, graduated from high school and was supposed to register with Selective Service but I never did. Months later, the United States' involvement in Viet Nam and Cambodia was over. I just may owe my life to those who fought to end the American invasion, occupation, and bombing of Viet Nam.
Jerry Steele; Cameron, Missouri; Administrator and Teacher (Public School, History, Retired)
              I am a 1971-72 Nam Vet. I taught dual credit history courses on the 1960 and the Viet Nam War, and was involved with Prof. Jerold Starr's early work writing curriculum for the U.S. War in Viet Nam - Center for Social Studies Education.
Bernard L. Stein; Bronx, New York; Professor (Journalism), City University of New York (C.U.N.Y.) – Hunter College
              One of the founders of Berkeley Students for a Democratic Society (S.D.S.). Member of the editorial board of The Movement and of Steps, the magazine of the Free University of Berkeley.
Peter Stein; Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Physician (Gerontologist)
Jon Steinberg; New York
Ted Steinberg; Shaker Heights, Ohio; Dayee Professor (History and Law), Case Western Reserve University
Barbara J. Steinson; Greencastle; Professor (History)
              Undergraduate and graduate student antiwar activist, Grinnell College, University of Michigan
David N. Stern; Brooklyn, New York; Counselor (Correction, Retired)
              1965-68 member of Columbia University Independent Committee on Viet Nam.
Roberta Stern; Oakland, California
Anne Stevens; Greensboro, Vermont; Teacher (Kindergarten through 12th Grade)
Craig Stevens; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Alan Stevenson; Sheffield; Teacher (School), International Traveler (Retired)
              As a hippie travelling and living in South East Asia I met a number of G.I.'s on Rest and Relaxation in Bangkok, Thailand, and met many servicemen in Vientiane, Laos. A lot were opposed to the Viet Nam War and there were many deserters and dissidents.
David Stewart; Durham, New Hampshire
Louis Stone; Menomonie, Wisconsin; Conscientious Objector, Unrequited
              Participated in one antiwar demonstration in Ann Arbor, Michigan during the Viet Nam War, and one antiwar demonstration in Minneapolis, Minnesota leading up to the Iraq War. Studied Buddhism peace methods for many years.
Ona Stonkus; Calgary, Alberta, Canada (New York); Teacher (History); Editor
              1960s and 70s active in New York City and Madison, Wisconsin antiwar movements.
Susan Strasser; Takoma Park, MD, Maryland; Richards Professor (American History, Emerita)
Debra Street; Wilmington, Delaware; Team Leader
Loretta M. Strharsky; Fort Collins, Colorado; Retired, Community Volunteer, Parent Activist
Tracy Strong; Winchester, California; Professor
Philippa Strum; Washington, District of Columbia; Professor (Emerita), City University of New York
Tommie Lee Suber; Lenexa, Kansas
              I attended every local and national antiwar demonstration. Participated in the first teach-in against the war at the University of Michigan. Engaged in a sit-in at the Ann Arbor draft Board. I was prosecuted for failure to submit to induction and once my case despite the fact I refused induction on local television. I was arrested for assaulting three FBI agents who were attempting to arrest a draft resister at a church in Detroit. Was acquitted of both charges.
              A number of other minor arrests for antiwar activity, and not charged for bombing my draft board with dynamite. Which they deserved.
              Pardon by the President and proud of my service to the peace movement and solidarity to the Vietnamese people.
David Suisman; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Department of History, University of Delaware
Jim Sullivan; Eugene, Oregon
              1968 I worked in the Mental Health field in the Army's Ninth Infantry Division in Viet Nam. I was briefly active in Viet Nam Veterans against the War and later, for a more extended period, in Clergy and Laity Concerned (C.A.L.C.). I share the concerns raised in this petition and am deeply embarrassed by the efforts of the Viet Nam War Commemoration Program.
Marianna P. Sullivan; Abington, Pennsylvania
Michael J. Sullivan III; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Professor (History and Politics, Emeritus), Drexel University
Will Sullivan; Dade City, Florida; Letter Carrier (Retired)
Jon Sumida; Silver Spring, Maryland; Professor (Military History), University of Maryland, College Park
              Refused induction and convicted of refusing to obey an order of Congress. I was sentenced to two years, of which I served nine months and ten days.
Roger Sundy; Pine Mountain, Georgia; Engineer (Civil, Retired)
Chuck Sutter; Claymont, Delaware
              In 1970 I registered as a Conscientious Objector, and continue to work for peace. "You may say I'm a Dreamer, but I'm not the only one."
James L. Swarts; Rochester, New York; Professor, Reverend
Howard Swerdloff; New Brunswick, New Jersey; Instructor (History, Adjunct), City University of New York (C.U.N.Y.)
              I was an activist with the New York High School Mobilization Committee against the War and later the New York High School Student Union.
Nicholas Swift; Delhi, New York
Trudy H. Szczypka; Westcliff-on-Sea, England
Margery Tabankin; Los Angeles, California; President, Margery Tabankin & Associates.
Martin Tandler; New York, New York; President, Vista Fabrics, Inc.
              1967 President Students for a Democratic Society (S.D.S.) University of Wisconsin.
Jennifer Tanner; Seattle, Washington
Harry Targ; West Lafayette, Indiana; Professor (Political Science)
              I was an antiwar activist, National Guard Reservist and International Relations Teacher and Researcher.
David Tarlo; Brooklyn, New York
Michael Tassone; New Hyde Park, New York; Specialist (Business Software)
Pamela Tau Lee; San Francisco, California
Meredith Tax; New York, New York; Writer
Richard Taylor; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Retired
              Antiwar Activist. Innumerable antiwar demonstrations and a half-dozen arrests. Along with my wife, Phyllis, co-founder of Philadelphia Life Center, organized nonviolent trainings and actions against Viet Nam war and other injustices. Knelt on railroad track in Leonardo, New Jersey in front of train carrying military equipment to a ship going to Viet Nam. With Phyllis, spent two weeks in jail at Monmouth County Correctional Institution.
Robin Taylor; Washington, District of Columbia
Bruce Teague; Cambridge, Massachusetts; Priest
Walter Teague; Adelphi, Maryland; Social Worker
              1965 started U.S. Committee to Aid the National Liberation Front of South Viet Nam to promote awareness in the Peace Movement of why the Vietnamese were resisting the U.S. aggression in their country.
Noell Teasley; Waynesville, North Carolina
Anthony Tedesco; Lakewood, New Jersey
Glenn Tepper; White Plains, New York; Teacher
Artemus B. Terral; Belle Chasse, Louisiana; V.P.
John F. Terzano; Kettering, Ohio; Director (Academic Success and Bar Preparation), School of Law, University of Dayton
              Former Vice President of Viet Nam Veterans of America Foundation and President of the Justice Project. Viet Nam veteran. Along with Bobby Muller co-founded Viet Nam Veterans of America Foundation and in 1981 part of first group of veterans to return to Viet Nam. Worked toward reconciliation and normalizing relations with Viet Nam.
Arthur Tesche; Eugene, Oregon; Photographer (Scenic)
              I was lucky. My father, a World War II Veteran and Presbyterian minister, had already helped four others obtain Conscientious Objector status. Among the local board were three World War II vets, none who had seen fighting. The "trick" question of “What would you do if you found someone raping your mother or sister?” was answered with the aid of the American Friends Service Committee literature, God bless them!
Allisyn Thomas; San Diego, California
Julia Adeney Thomas; Chicago, Illinois; Professor (Associate), Notre Dame
              I was a child during the Viet Nam War, but have worked on historical memory problems in Japan that resonate with those in America. I am interested in the way museums, rather than sanctifying one point of view, can create multiple perspectives on the past.
Perry Thomas; Bloomfield, Indiana
William Thomas; Auburn, New Hampshire; Coordinator, New Hampshire Veterans for Peace, Teacher (High School U.S. History, Retired)
              1990 joined Veterans for Peace (V.F.P.). 2000 became New Hampshire coordinator. How is this linked to Obama's and U.S. Congress funding for the Viet Nam Commemoration Project?
Julie M. Thompson; Santa Monica, California; Filmmaker
Barrie Thorne; Berkeley, California; Professor (Sociology and Gender Studies, Retired), University of California at Berkeley (U.C.B.)
              Active in the antiwar and draft resistance movements.
Diane Tinnes; Inver Grove Heights, Minnesota
Ted Tipton; Eastvale, California; Supervisor, Safety
              When Saigon fell April 30, 1975 I was only four years old. As a teenager and throughout my adulthood I have spent much of my personal time studying the whole history of the war. I hope we can remember the war in its totality and speak of it honestly and respectfully toward all who were and are still affected.
Sylvia Tiwon; Berkeley, California
David Tobis; Oakland, California; Partner (Senior), Maestral International
Alex Tom; Oakland, California
Monique Tonet; Nice, France
Kim Tormey; Murfreesboro, Tennessee
Dorcas A. Santiago Torres; San Juan, Puerto Rico
Bob Tourtelot; Bellingham, Washington
Robert Traller; Redwood City, California
              1967-68 Viet Nam combat veteran. 1971-72 joined Viet Nam Veterans against the War.
John Trauger; Gulfport, Florida; Forced into military service due to the draft 1968. Viet Nam service.
Socrates J. Triantafillou; New York, New York; Director (Design), Dimensional Communications, Inc.
Bruce Trigg; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Physician and Consultant, International Public Health
              November 2014 I worked as a Public Health Consultant in Ha Noi, will return in spring 2015. Let me know if I can assist with 40th anniversary plans. I was a student antiwar activist 1968-69 with New York High School Student Union, 1969-70 City College of New York (CCNY), 1970-72 State University of New York, University of Buffalo.
John Trinkl; San Francisco, California
              Worked against the war with various groups: PCPJ, New University Conference, New Mobe, etc.
Phil Trounstine; Aptos, California; Editor, Publisher, Calbuzz
Michael True; Worcester, Massachusetts; Ph.D., Professor (Emeritus), Assumption College
              From 1964 onward I was deeply involved in the antiwar movement. I had learned a lot about the history of Viet Nam and followed it closely all along, speaking at many forums and working as a draft counselor for my students and other young men to help them make an informed decision about the draft.
              Later I co-founded the Massachusetts Council to Repeal the Draft and other state and local organizations legislating against the war and the draft. At the moment, I fear all the rich history of the war and those servicemen, women and civilians who suffered a lot for telling the truth about the war, losing jobs, employment discrimination, imprisonment, etc. has been lost or ignored by present day "historians," except for Nick Turse's brilliant, informative, and readable history, "Killing Everything That Moves: A History of the Real Viet Nam War.”
F. David Tucker; Indianapolis, Indiana
Kitty Tucker
William Turley; Seattle, Washington; Professor (Emeritus), Southern Illinois University
Mac (John) Turner; North Stonington, Connecticut
Paul Turner; Leicester, North Carolina; Pilot, Delta Air Lines
Margaret Ullman; Newtown, Pennsylvania
              Private protest.
Barby Ulmer; Saratoga, California; Co-Director, Our Developing World
              For ten years San Jose Peace Center Coordinator and Volunteer Draft Counselor, weekly peace vigils.
Vic Ulmer; Saratoga, California; Co-Director, Our Developing World
              For ten years San Jose Peace Center Coordinator and Volunteer Draft Counselor, weekly peace vigils.
Juan Carlos Vallejo; South Royalton, Vermont; Student
              1970-73 Journalist in Cambodia and Laos.
Charles Vandagriff; Oakland, California; Artist, Builder
              During the Viet Nam war I was discharged from the U.S. Air Force as Conscientious Objector. After the war, I was a new American Friends Service Committee (A.F.S.C.) staff person with the Campaign to Stop Production of B-1 Bomber. Later still to the present, I am a Counselor and Board Member with the G.I. Rights Hotline.
John Van Eyck; Berkeley, California; Representative (Field), S.E.I.U.; Photographer for the Daily World.
Kathryn Van Note; Crestone, Colorado; Retired
              I protested the Viet Nam war.
Dirk Van Nouhuys; Berkeley, California; Writer
John Van Sant; Birmingham, Alabama; Professor (History, Associate)
Ted Varney; Santa Fe, New Mexico
Stephen Viederman; New York, New York; President, Jesse Smith Noyes Foundation
William Van Vugt; Grand Rapids, Michigan; Professor (History)
              I have led six college groups to Viet Nam and Cambodia to study the history of French imperialism and the American War in Indochina.
Don Villarejo; Davis, California; Executive Director, California Institute for Rural Studies (Retired)
K. Steven Vincent; Raleigh, North Carolina; Professor (History), North Carolina State University
              I was denied a Conscientious Objector classification by San Jose, California draft board. When drafted I refused induction into the army. Fortunately, I was not prosecuted.
Elias Vlanton; Takoma Park, Maryland; Teacher (History, Retired)
Beth Volk; Arlington, Virginia; Manager, Business (Retired)
Joe Volk; Arlington, Virginia; Secretary, Executive (Emeritus), Friends Committee on National Legislation
              1967-69 U.S. Army; 1968 refused to go with Unit A Troop, 4th/12th Cavalry, Fifth Division to Viet Nam; court martial for A.W.O.L. Honorable discharge; began nonviolent peace movement work.
Viet Quang Vu; New York, New York; Statistician (Senior), United Nations (former)
Ken Wachsberger; Ann Arbor, Michigan
              Participated in and organized antiwar marches, rallies, teach-ins, and conferences, and wrote for underground papers around the country. Busted several times. After the war, became a historian for the underground press.
              Four-volume Voices from the Underground series ( was called "the most important book on American journalism published in my lifetime" by one reviewer when the first edition was published. Currently creating extensive digital collection of underground, alternative, and literary newspapers and magazines that will have over one million pages from over twelve hundred publications when completed.
Cynthia Wachtell; New York, New York; Professor (American Studies, Research Associate; Director, Honors Program), Scholar (American Antiwar Writing), Author of War No More: The Antiwar Impulse in American Literature, 1865-1914.
Stephen Walach; Pawtucket, Rhode Island; Teacher
              1970 I was granted I-O status following a hearing at my local draft board in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. The American Friends Service Committee (A.F.S.C.) cited that particular board as one of the least likely draft boards to grant conscientious objector status. As they questioned me I found the four board members to be circumspect, but fair. Three were former baseball coaches of mine, and I suppose they knew me well enough to take my sincerity as a given.
              Once granted the Conscientious Objector status I did alternative service for two years at a local psychiatric hospital. My draft number was in the low two hundreds and I was drafted. I had passed the required physical a couple years earlier and would have been inducted into the military had I not received the Conscientious Objector. I went through all the proper channels and the process for obtaining Conscientious Objector status laid out by the United States government, which worked out for me in a fair and equitable way. The process allowed me to protest in a most personal way, yet still remain a law-abiding citizen of the United States of America.
              During the lead-up to the Iraq invasion in 2003 I wrote numerous letters to our local newspaper – a few of which were actually printed. I spoke up a various forums in the early stages of the war. 2004 I also led a delegation that met with then-United States Representative Patrick Kennedy, who had supported the war but was open to listening to opposing points of view. In the first few weeks of that war, I also won a one hundred dollar bet with my sister that there were no Weapons of Mass Destruction (W.M.D.) in Iraq. She paid up and I donated the winnings to Kerry’s 2004 presidential campaign. I am greatly cheered by the presence of Viet Nam era veterans who have initiated calls for a balanced commemoration.
              I have only the highest respect and admiration for those soldiers who as young men enlisted, or were drafted, and in all sincerity served their country with courage and in the spirit of self-sacrifice with hopes for a better, more peaceful world. Best friends of mine died in Vietnam and several more vets suffered lasting injuries.
              Soldiers who served should be treated with the utmost respect and gratitude. They should be honored for their sacrifice. However, the story from the other side of that unnecessary war should be told. Thank you to all who have advocated for the antiwar and pro-peace position during the fiftieth anniversary commemoration. It's about time.
Alan M. Wald; Ann Arbor, Michigan; H. Chandler Davis Collegiate Professor of English Literature and American Culture, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
              Starting in 1965, I became active in the Antioch College chapter of Students for a Democratic Society (S.D.S.), mainly around antiwar activities, then Economic Research and Action Program (E.R.A.P.) in Cleveland, then the Student Mobilization Committee to End the War in Viet Nam. 1969 at the University of California, Berkeley, I was involved in the Viet Nam Moratorium, the May 1970 closure of the U.C. Berkeley campus, and later ran for Berkeley City council on an antiwar ticket of the Socialist Workers Party.
Karen Lee Wald; Oakland, California; Writer, Researcher, Lecturer
              1965 graduated from Cornell University on disciplinary probation for activities opposing the war; member of Steering Committee Viet Nam Day Committee, Berkeley, California; suspended from graduate school University of California, Berkeley for activities opposing war in Viet Nam; 1967 staff of International War Crimes Tribunal denouncing crimes committed by U.S. and its allies in Viet Nam, Laos and Cambodia, Stockholm; staff of Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation. 1967 War Crimes Tribunal; press coordinator coalition organizing March on the Pentagon; staff or leadership position in many coalitions opposing the war.
Richard M. Walden; Los Angeles, California; President and C.E.O., Operation U.S.A.
              1968-69 active duty in U.S. Army Reserves 348th General Hospital, trained combat medic.
Jim Wallis; Washington, District of Columbia; Founder and Editor, Sojourners
              Early supporter of Students for a Democratic Society (S.D.S.) and active in antiwar movement at Michigan State. Was involved in campaigns for peace in Central America, early supporter of Nuclear Freeze campaign, organized religious community opposition to invasion of Iraq
L. Ling-chi Wang; San Francisco, California; Professor (Emeritus), University of California at Berkeley (U.C.B.)
              I participated in several protest marches and demonstrations.
Geoffrey Ward; Portland, Oregon
Marion Ward; Portland, Oregon
Joe Washuta; Armuchee, Georgia
Arthur Waskow; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Rabbi; Director, The Shalom Center; Resident Fellow, Institute for Policy Studies; co-author, A Call to Resist Illegitimate Authority
              Steering Committee, New Mobilization Committee to End the War in Indochina; antiwar delegate from Washington, D.C. 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago.
Steve Wasserman; Fairfield, Connecticut
              1965 publically opposed the Viet Nam war as a junior high school student in Berkeley California. I founded a group in school to educate my fellow students. We passed out copies of the Geneva agreements. Over the next five years we organized numerous demonstrations opposing the war. I participated in many such demonstrations in Oakland, San Francisco, Berkeley and elsewhere.
              I wrote against the war, spoke out against the war, and in the fall of 1970 was arrested during one demonstration on the University of California campus. Our protests were motivated by our patriotism and a deep desire to spare our troops from the tragedy that was engulfing United States and inflicting terrible and needless suffering on the people of Viet Nam.
Harry Watson; Carrboro, North Carolina; Professor (History)
              1967-71 grunt in the student peace movement.
Bruce Waxman; Fairfax, Virginia
              1968-69 I served in the 176th Medical Detachment (V.S.L.) in Viet Nam. Former member of Viet Nam Veterans against the War (V.V.A.W.) and Jewish Campaign for the People's Peace Treaty. Currently, I am President of Viet Nam Veterans of America (Chapter 227).
Marilyn Webb; New York, New York; Distinguished Professor (Journalism, Emerita), Knox College
              I was involved in the antiwar movement and assumed a leadership position in the women's movement that grew out of it.
Tom Webb
              As a teenager, Viet Nam was a cutting edge issue for me. As an adult, I am personally and professionally deeply involved in non-violence activities. While I would not describe myself as a pacifist, I am highly skeptical if the so-called "gods of war" and even less so of the burgeoning military-industrial complex former President Eisenhower so poignantly warned us about.
Devra A. Weber; Los Angeles, California; Professor (Associate)
Barbara Webster; Montclair, New Jersey
              1965-74 I worked full-time with national antiwar groups and was a tax resister. In 1969, I took part in a draft board raid in New York City, as well as a couple of civil disobedience actions.
Art Wedmore; Cathedral City, California; President, Wedmore Enterprises, Inc.
Bruce Weigl; Oberlin, Ohio; Distinguished Professor (Arts and Humanities), Faculty Liaison for Veterans Services
Peter Weiler; Cambridge, Massachusetts; Professor (History)
Anne Weills; Oakland, California; Attorney
Loren Weinberg; Boulder, Colorado; Professor (Retired)
              1965-73 persistent engagement in activity against the Viet Nam war in several different organizations.
Michael Weinberg; Sandy, Oregon
              1967 Peace Corps Volunteer in Chile, where I helped organize, along with others, signing and distribution of a petition calling for negotiations for peace in Viet Nam. 1960s-70s took part in numerous peace demonstrations.
Thomas Weiner; Northampton, Massachusetts; Teacher (Sixth Grade); Member, Paulo Friere Social Justice High School Board
              I have written Called to Serve: Stories of Men and Women Confronted by the Viet Nam War Draft, a book of interview-based responses to the draft by thirty-one men and women, including all available possibilities (service, resistance, conscientious objection, leaving the country, beating the draft with a high number or subterfuge) and a final chapter on those who loved, counseled and supported them. The book has been adapted into a play, "The Draft," which will premiere in February 2015.
Barbara Weinstein; New York, New York; Professor (History)
Cora Weiss
Peter Weiss; New York, New York; Attorney
              I was a member of the Lawyers Committee on American Policy toward Viet Nam. Went to Ha Noi in the middle of the war with Mort Stavis at the invitation of the Ha Noi Bar Association. On our return gave a report on American war crimes to the New York Bar Association.
Thomas Weisskopf; Ann Arbor, Michigan; Professor (Economics), University of Michigan
Eliot Werner; Clinton Corners, New York
Jayne Werner; New York, New York; Professor (Political Science, Emerita), Long Island University
Rinda West; Chicago, Illinois
Jeff Westfall; Bluffington, South Carolina
Patricia White; Pistoia, Italy (California)
Joan Widdifield; Carrboro, North Carolina; Filmmaker
              2002-2005 I advised a victim-assistance Non-Government Organization (N.G.O.) in Viet Nam and Cambodia for victims and their families of Explosive Remnants of War. Then I produced a film, Rainy Season, about one family I met there who lost their small son to an American mortar. The film is in film festivals now in the United States and Europe. Of the eight million tons of bombs the United States deployed it is estimated that about ten percent is still unexploded. Serious accidents still occur every week. You can view the trailer at
Tobey M. Wiebe; Berkeley, California; Teacher (Community College), San Francisco
Paki Wieland; Northampton, Massachusetts; Faculty (University)
Jon Wiener; Los Angeles, California; Professor (History)
Seth Wigderson; Brunswick, Maine; Professor (History)
Dan Wilcox; Albany, New York
              1969 drafted, but was in the lucky half of my training class and stayed in the United States. I was antiwar before, during, and after being drafted, and am an active member of Veterans for Peace.
Robert H. Wilcox; St. Louis, Missouri
Debrah S. Wiley; Los Angeles, California; Senior Analyst, City of Santa Monica
              Founding co-editor of "American Report," published by Clergy and Laity Concerned about Viet Nam (C.A.L.C.A.V.). 1975 visited Viet Nam as a member of fact-finding team to assess the status of the 1973 Paris Peace Agreement.
Maria Wilkinson; Cleveland Heights, Ohio
Carol Williams; Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada; Ph.D., Professor (History, Associate)
James (Jim) H. Williams; Tacoma, Washington; Instructor (Adjunct), University of Washington, Tacoma
Roger Neville Williams; Florida; Writer, Solar Project Developer (Retired); Founder, Standard Solar, Inc., Co-founder, S.E.L.C.O.-India; Partner, Ute Peak Solar; Author (Sun Power; The New Exiles: American War Resisters in Canada)
              1965 I wrote a column in the Colorado Daily predicting we could not win a war in Viet Nam. 1967 indicted for draft evasion, but went to Viet Nam as freelance correspondent knowing the FBI would not look for me there. 1969 moved to Canada and became active in war exile politics. Wrote the book The New Exiles: American War Resisters in Canada. 1973 moved to England, returned to U.S. once the P.O.W.s came home. 1975 helped Cora Weiss, Carl Rogers and Phil Ochs organize the End of the War celebration in Central Park. Worked as writer-producer for WNBC-TV News in New York City, then moved to Colorado, where I continued to write about Viet Nam (and brought friend Peter Yarrow to Telluride to ski and for several concerts).
              Many years later got back into politics via a position as National Media Director for Greenpeace U.S.A. in Washington, D.C. This led to environmental awareness, which led to a worldwide solar energy business, including opening a company in Viet Nam twenty-five years after the war. I worked with many former members of the National Liberation Front (Viet Cong) and North Vietnamese to bring solar power to thousands of Vietnamese villagers.
David Willinger; New York, New York; Professor
Nadya Willliams; San Francisco, California
              Coordinator (Volunteer), Veterans for Peace Annual Spring Tours to Viet Nam
Jocelyn Wills; Brooklyn, New York
Jim Wilson; Himrod, New York; Administrator (Non-profit)
              Antiwar activist, civil rights activist, Catholic worker, draft resister. Served time for various selective service violations and other peace activities.
Martin B. Wilson; Saginaw, Michigan; Attorney
Susan K. Wind Early; Mariposa, California; 2008 to present, Court Appointed Special Advocate (C.A.S.A.) for Foster Children, C.A.S.A. of Fresno and Madera Counties; small business owner (Retired)
              Indochina Peace Campaign (I.P.C.) central and northern California organizer, National Resource Center full-time staff member in Santa Monica, California (Focal Point monthly antiwar newspaper, antiwar Speakers' Bureau, Women in Viet Nam slide show.) Organized local, state, regional, national peace movement conferences; demonstrations in California's Central Valley, San Francisco, and the San Clemente march and protest of Nguyen Van Thieu's official visit to Richard Nixon at his California home.
Martha Winnacker; Berkeley, California; Director (Executive), University of California, Berkeley Functional Area, (Retired)
              1977-85 staff member, Southeast Asia Resource Center focusing on reconciliation and normalization.
Barbara Winslow; Brooklyn, New York; Professor, Founder and Director, Shirley Chisholm Project
Christopher Winter; San Jose, California
Steve Wise; Atlanta, Georgia
              Active in opposition to the war in Southern Student Organizing Committee (S.S.O.C.), Students for a Democratic Society (S.D.S.), and other groups, as well as writing and reporting extensively on the war and opposition to it in The Great Speckled Bird newspaper. 1966-67 S.S.O.C. chair; member of S.D.S. at University of Virginia; writer and editor of The Great Speckled Bird.
Leslie Withers; Decatur, Georgia; Director (Program), Clergy and Laity Concerned (former)
Eric Witte; Brussels, Belgium, Pennsylvania
Gaile Witte Anderson; San Juan, Puerto Rico
Warren Witte; Newtown, Pennsylvania; Administrator, Not for Profit (Retired)
              I was part of a Quaker team that provided prosthetics and physical therapy to civilian casualties during the war. Based in Hog Kong, I provided purchasing services and logistical support to the team in Quang Ngai.
Lawrence S. Wittner; Albany, New York; Professor (History, Emeritus), State University of New York, Albany
              Organizer of peace movement petitions and protests, writer on the history of the American peace movement.
John Wolcott; Albany, New York; Clerk, Social Services Processing
              Operational Support System (O.S.S.) veteran testimonies to 1972-73 U.S. Senate Investigation Committee regarding events before the War with Japan ended should be presented. In addition, I don't wish to assent to the concept of "reconciliation" being applied to Al Qaeda, I.S.I.S., or such like, or lumping all situations precisely together.
Renee Wolters; Albuquerque, New Mexico
John Womack, Jr.; Cambridge, Massachusetts; Robert Woods Bliss Professor (Latin American History and Economics, Emeritus).
Deborah L. Wong; Moss Beach, California
Linda Worthington; Chevy Chase, Maryland; Writer, Editor, United Methodist Church
              1962-65 lived in Viet Nam. In U.S. volunteered with antiwar groups. Currently Vice President of International Volunteer Service Alumni Association. 1987 revisited Viet Nam.
Mel Wulf; New York, New York; Director (Legal), American Civil Liberties Union (A.C.L.U.)
              Represented lots of resisters in and out of the armed forces. Won Supreme Court case to forbid punitive induction of war resisters (Osterreich v. Hershey).
Mary Ann Wynkoop; Raytown, Missouri; Director, American Studies Program
Linda Yarr; Bethesda, Maryland
              Director, Partnerships for International Strategies in Asia; Member of Committee of Concerned Asian Scholars chapter in Ithaca, New York. Taught courses on the legacy of the Viet Nam War.
Peter Yarrow; New York City, New York; Member, Peter, Paul and Mary
              I spent almost a decade devoted to efforts to stop the war by organizing, singing and speaking at demonstrations and marches focused on ending the war between the U.S. and Viet Nam. In 1969, I co-organized the March on Washington to end the war in Viet Nam with Cora Weiss, which was attended by 500,000 participants and is widely credited with playing an important role in solidifying grass roots sentiment to end the war. Additionally, I organized events at Shea Stadium and Madison Square Garden that included dozens of other artists who also were committed to ending the war. Along with my partners in the trio Peter, Paul and Mary, I addressed the war in our music and in conversations, mainly with college students, after concerts every single night we performed. My song, "The Great Mandela" was one of many the trio sang during this antiwar era, as well as "Where Have All the Flowers Gone", and "Blowing in the Wind".
                  The trio also campaigned for Senator Eugene McCarthy, who was our antiwar candidate for president in 1968. We wrote Gene's campaign song, "If You Love Your Country" and traveled with Senator McCarthy to make campaign appearances.
                  The above represents only a fraction of our my, and the trio's, efforts in what was a prolonged, painful and very difficult effort, under the scrutiny of the Nixon's Enemy List and other governmental efforts to discredit us and others who espoused an antiwar commitment. However, in my view, the right and moral perspective prevailed at last by virtue of grass roots efforts, as opposed to top-down decision-making, and those of U.S. who opposed the war were successful and, in the light of history, completely vindicated. Particularly the last five years of the war were conducted via a tissue of lies to the American public, as has been revealed in "The Fog of War," a film that focuses on Robert McNamara, the trial of General Westmoreland, and books such as Neil Sheehan's "A Bright Shining Lie," not to mention the extraordinary revelations of the Pentagon Papers. In the past ten years, through John McAuliff's "Fund for Reconciliation and Development," I visited Viet Nam three times in the context of examining the legacy of the poison, Dioxin, a component chemical of Agent Orange dropped on portions of Viet Nam to defoliate those regions that left a multi-generational legacy of severely disabled children. What I saw and experienced in these trips reconfirmed the great mistake and shame of America's pursuit of the war in Viet Nam.
                  I am convinced that, until we come to terms with what we have done to injure others either by mistaken policies, however well intended, or by policies guided by blind and selfish national interest or domination of other parts of the world for economic or military reasons, we will be a divided nation and continue to open and enlarge these corrosive, self-inflicted wounds. A balanced and restorative justice perspective on the telling of our nation's history in Viet Nam would be a huge step towards our healing from these wounds. However, a continuation of lies and self-aggrandizement that characterizes the American psyche to proclaim "if we did it, it was right by definition" will only serve to deepen the moral vacuum afflicting our nation with the legacy of deceit and guilt regarding committed and unacknowledged atrocities committed against others. We will go forward with other Viet Nams, Iraqs, Guantanamos, 17th and 19th Wards in New Orleans, millions of fracking wells, and an unending inability to address genocidal policies of our country vis-a-vis our First Nations, the lingering and recurrent eruption of racism in our criminal justice system, and continue to harm our own and others and pretend, like a hit-and-run driver, such injury never occurred and we need not take responsibility for it. The telling of a balanced history or our engagement in the war in Viet Nam could be a precedent of great importance, a first and most important step for us in doing all we can to start to heal ourselves in regard to the history of our nation's injuries to others, or the bleakest of futures awaits us. Truth, forgiveness and reconciliation with, and for, ourselves and others will be the pathway toward addressing this nation's sociopathic inclinations that have become ever more destructive to our hearts and our morality in recent years.
Dennis Keith Yergler; Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Ph.D., Professor
Richard York; Portland, Oregon
              I am a non-combat veteran of the Viet Nam era. I was also a fervent opponent of that war which seemed to have sent my country on a fifty-year path of military misadventures. To my dismay and despair, our leaders seem to be determined to perpetuate the madness.
Ethan Young; Brooklyn, New York
              Active in Chicago High School Students against the War and the People's Peace Treaty campaign. The proof of our effectiveness is the continued popular opposition to military adventures.
Marilyn B. Young; New York City, New York; Professor
Ron Young; Everett, Washington
              Coordinator, November 15, 1969 and May 9, 1970 Marches on Washington for Peace in Viet Nam.
Doug Zachary; Cedar Creek, Texas; Coordinator (Membership and Development), Veterans for Peace
              I was assigned as a Fire Control Systems Technician in the Marine Corps Air Wing, specialized in Phantom F-4s. In May 1970, I earned a Conscientious Objector discharge. I have since studied International Politics and earned an M.A. in Environmental Spirituality. There is no peace in the absence of contrition and reparations. The United States still denies the barbarity of our behavior in Southeast Asia and Agent Orange continues to kill and maim.
Ellen Zaltzberg; Brooklyn, New York; Educator, Community Health
Melinda Zarrett; Pacifica, California
Bob Zaugh; Los Angeles, California; Manager
George Zebot; Laguna Hills, California; Professor (Emeritus)
              1968 served as an artist stationed in Nha Trang, Viet Nam with the First Psychological Operations (Psyops). 2002 returned to Viet Nam. 2008 and 2009 returned to Cambodia.
Helene Zera; New York, New York
Andrew Zimmerman; Washington, District of Columbia
Bill Zimmerman; Topanga, California; President, Zimmerman and Markman Political Consulting
              Formerly Executive Director, Medical Aid for Indochina (M.A.I.); senior staff for Indochina Peace Campaign (I.P.C.) and Science for the People.
David Zimmerman; Zumbrota, Minnesota; Certified Public Accountant
Frank Zollo; Delmar, New York
Joan Zorza; Bowie, Maryland; Editor, Domestic Violence Report
Alex Zukas; San Diego, California
John Zutz; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Tour Guide, Lakefront Brewery

              PFC 585th Engineer Company (D.T.); Pleiku, Kontum, Dak To, Phan Rang. Wisconsin Council on Veterans Programs; Chapter, State, and National Coordinator of Viet Nam Veterans against the War; Viet Nam Veterans Advisory Committee, Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center (V.A.M.C.); Board Member (Secretary, Chair) of Wisconsin Viet Nam Veterans Memorial, “The High Ground.”
as of 4/6/15

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New York Times page one coverage

Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel on Veterans Day, November 11

"The Wall reminds us to be honest in our telling of history. There is nothing to be gained by glossing over the darker portions of a war, the Vietnam War, that bitterly divided America. We must openly acknowledge past mistakes, and we must learn from past mistakes, because that is how we avoid repeating past mistakes."

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